Thursday, June 4, 2020

Child Studies And Child Psychology Research Assignment - 4400 Words

Child Studies And Child Psychology Research Assignment (Essay Sample) Content: Child studies and Child Psychology By (Insert your name)Institution Instructor Course Saturday, May 21, 2016 Introduction Childhood is a period from birth to adolescence of an individual. It has divided into various stages according to biology or developmental psychology, which are early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. Childhood is continuously transitional both physically and mentally resulting to adulthood. The major factors that influence the childhood experiences are the society and culture shaping their lives in development, education, health and the welfare of the child, which affects the child thought their lives. Children are diverse. They differ in their social and cultural backgrounds. With such a diversity of children, there is a need to come up with policies and practices that are necessary to offer to children the best at this stage that is sensitive to live. To get along with these plans studies have to be done to understand the right polic ies and practices to a child. Currently, childhood studies and child psychology have been used. The major features utilized in these two approaches are different thus different results are derived. The formulate policies and practices aimed at protecting children and their rights. Due to the differences in the results realized, it is important to combine the two: childhood studies and child psychology so as to come up with an effective policy and practice.Childhood studies and child psychology According to Kehily, (2009), Childhood Studies offers an integrative framework used to elaborate a child-centered research that is holistic in approach and built around the child rights and agency while including all diversities in gender and ethnicity. The childhood studies look much on the social and cultural effects on the developing child. Childhood studies comprise of three key features: childhood, children, and childhood and adulthood. Childhood is socially constructed and reconstructed. Children learn to think, feel act and communicate socially based on cultural their settings. The beliefs that the society has on childhood also primarily affect the child development showing a connection between social, cultural and biological processes of a child. The socio status of a child is a possible consideration in the retraction. The condition affects the childs activity, and the agency is shaping their childhood. The socio status changes the extent to which the children are social actors making meaning out of the events enabling them to construct cognitive that make sense. There are variant explanations that will, therefore, elucidate the psychology of a childs actions and mind. According to Montgomery, different cultures children are viewed in a variety of ways, which affect their perceptions. In the western culture, the children are seen as innocent and dependants whereas in some of the non-western communities they are believed to be spirits who know to communicate. The difference between the cultural beliefs affects the childs care articulation. In the Western culture cases, the children are provided for whereas in the non-western communities who take the children to be spirits; the children are to participate in the daily activities. This early participation will shape the child in a different way as compared to the child provided with the care. The risks of exposure to the environmental various conditions are therefore different. In children, the effect of early trauma and abuse to the children and how it enables them to create resilience and ways of coping up are a major thing taken into consideration at in childhood studies. The needs of the child attention can be the preliminary articulation alongside their provision. This Inception follows a look at the relationship between the child and adults. The adult has cultural definitions on the expectations of maturity and immaturity. This aspect primarily affects how the children develop as has so cial constructivism. Child psychology looks at the child as young learners who are innocent. It looks at the biology, social, emotion and technical cognitive areas to describe, explain and optimize development. It tries to explain the change seen in children over time. Researchers focus on the typical patterns of change that are continual and cumulative and the individual variations in patterns of change. The contributions of both nature (biological maturation) and nurture (impact of the environment) are first considerable to explain development. In nurture, the experiences that the child learns from while developing perceptions of their growth. In developmental psychology, the psychologist will examine the past experiences and their influences to understand how the child is behaving currently. The doctor will then use the current behavior of the child to predict the future behavior of the child. This aspect can help in modifying the various factors that are affecting the childs li fe for a better tomorrow. In psychology studies, the genetic makeup of the child are investigated, as the genetic material, and the environment is the major factors that affect how the child develops to maturity. McLeod, S (2009)The various theories used in the study of the child psychology are Piagets cognitive theory which covers the schemas, adoption that enables the transition from one stage to of development to another, sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage that are biological changes. Piaget seeks to explain the mechanisms by which an infant develops to a child then grows to an individual who can reason. The cognitive development according to Piaget is a continuous reorganization of the mental processes as a result of maturation. The children learn things and relate them to what surrounds them. The Vygotskys social developmental theory is a focus on the socio interaction of the child within the proximal zones. This in teraction has a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotskys theory suggests that the intellectual evolution of the child is affected by both the biological and the socio-cultural elements. Language and other skills develop as the child interacts with the surrounding. The socio-development comes before the cognitive development. Bowlbys attachment theory suggests that the child is pre-programmed biologically to form attachments, which leads to the developmental of emotional bond that connects them to others over time and space. The attachment is a set of behaviors that is drawn by how adults and the society treat the child. The child will first attach to their feeders by connecting the feeder with comfort love and care. They will then learn to accept various people at different stages but will have a firm connection to those who treat them well.The childhood studies look deeply at the social and cultural effects of the environment on a child, which from the external w orld of a child. Their social aspect affects the childhood of an individual forming the basis of changes that lead to maturity. It does not look at the biological changes that are the physical size and the maturity of the child. In child psychology, the primary concern is in the child development changes that are purely organic and transitional. However, in both cases: childhood studies and child psychology, the changes that occur in a child are the aim of study as they lead to maturity of the child. The child psychology establishes the evidence from a scientific point of view as it looks at the role of genes while the childhood studies look only at the social influence of the child. However, in both cases, the society is a factor that is affecting the development of the child. It shapes the emotions of the child in developmental psychology and childhood studies; it aids in the childhood to adulthood transition. The role of nurture in childhood shapes the childs life in both cases. In the developmental psychology, a direct research on the child is done based on the ethical issues underlined while childhood studies adopt the history of the children and observations are made then drawing conclusions. The differences in the two studies make it necessary for one to look at both childhood studies and child psychology for proper policy and practice development. The systems developed on childcare derive their principles from both the child psychology and the youth education. In the early childhood care and teaching system, it is required that all childrens relation is friendly. In this policy, the education program is viewed as a socio intervention whose success depends on particular characteristics of the relationship among children and society over time. Woodhead (2006) states that the improvements seen in the youth have their accounts of explanation by the transition steps that boost the children ability and the motivations they receive from their parents and the teachers raising them up. They should be given equal chances and care despite their background, ethnicity or religion. The policy has its basis both from the child psychology and childhood studies. The childhood studies and developmental psychology offer both scientific argument and socio argument as to why this has adoption as a way of providing care and education to the children. The argument is from various perspectives, which are:A social and cultural perspective of childhoodIt looks at the key themes of diversities of early childhood, the social and cultural development and social construction policy themes. The variation in the healthy growth of a child is different depending on the social status and the culture of the child. Socio status will affect the type of activities the child engages in and the time thus affecting the reasoning and intellectual level of the child. The mother- in...

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay Aging and Disability Worksheet - 1522 Words

Aging and Disability Worksheet Part 1 Identify 2 or 3 issues faced by the aging population 1. Health 2. Job security 3. Lack of respect from the younger youth 1. What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is a negative bias against a person or group of people on the grounds of age. Ageism or age discrimination is stereotyping against individuals or groups because of their age. It is usually focused on two targets: young adults and older adults, but it can affect any employee of any age. It shows in many researches that women are likely to experience the effect of such action before the age of 21 and the age of 40, as with men that are under the age of 18 and over the age of 50.†¦show more content†¦Women also has a disadvantage because they are the ones that give childbirth and most stay home and be housewife’s. Part 2 1. What does the ADA provide for people with disabilities? The ADA is â€Å"American’s with Disabilities Act. It makes it illegal to discriminate based on disability in several areas of life. It forbids discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, and service rendered by the state and even the local government. This law helps people with epilepsy, spinal cord injuries, and even Aids and many more disabilities that are covered under this act. A person that is in a wheelchair has the same rights that people that can walk them just need accommodations that will help them get the job done. There are many disabilities that are over looked in the work place and this act helps the disabled keep the job ( 2. How have people with disabilities been treated in the past? I feel that people with disabilities have been treated without respect in the past. It isn’t their fault that they are disabled. Many insurance companies would not even pay medical bills for someone that is disabled in the past, it was a fighting battle. And many people that would see someone that is missing a leg or their face is deformed, people would stare and laugh at them, which would is worse for them to deal with their disabilities. Many mean people would call people names with disabilities like â€Å"Freak†,Show MoreRelatedAging and Disability Worksheet1334 Words   |  6 PagesAssociate Program Material Aging and Disability Worksheet Part I Identify 2 or 3 issues faced by the aging population. 1. Loss of loved ones 2. Mobility 3. Discrimination due to age Answer the following questions in 100 to 200 words each. Provide citations for all the sources you use. †¢ What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is prejudice against a group who is of old age and discriminated against solely based on theirRead MoreAging and Disability Worksheet1910 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿Associate Program Material Aging and Disability Worksheet Part I Identify 2 or 3 issues faced by the aging population. 1. Health Issues 2. Income and Economic Welfare 3. Neglect and Abuse Answer the following questions in 100 to 200 words each. Provide citations for all the sources you use. What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is a form of discrimination and prejudice, particularly experienced by seniors. Most seniorsRead MoreAging and Disability Worksheet Part I Essay1419 Words   |  6 PagesAssociate Program Material Aging and Disability Worksheet Part I Identify 2 or 3 issues faced by the aging population. 1. Ageism 2. Social isolation 3. Retirement Answer the following questions in 100 to 200 words each. Provide citations for all the sources you use. †¢ What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is a form of discrimination. Ageism is being prejudice against someone because of their age. NormallyRead MoreDiversity Worksheet1946 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿ Appendix I Aging and Disability Worksheet University of Phoenix ETH/125 Rob Fralick February 23, 2014 Associate Program Material Aging and Disability Worksheet Part I Identify 2 or 3 issues faced by the aging population. 1 Health 2 Income 3 Lonliness Answer the following questions in 100 to 200 words each. Provide citations for all the sources you use. What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is prejudice and discriminationRead MoreEssay on Eth125 R8 Disability Diversity1763 Words   |  8 PagesAssociate Program Material Aging and Disability Worksheet Part I Identify 2 or 3 issues faced by the aging population. 1. Lack of security for the future (social security dwindling) 2. Unable to afford being able to retire 3. Being alone Answer the following questions in 100 to 200 words each. Provide citations for all the sources you use. †¢ What is ageism? How does ageism influence the presence of diversity in society? Ageism is prejudice or discriminationRead MoreHotel/Motel Market Analysis 23903 Words   |  16 Pagessoftware for developing hotel and motel financial projections are available through University of Wisconsin-Extension Center for Community Economic Development. Conducting Your Analysis The sections that follow include data collection checklists and worksheets. While the section on projecting occupancy and average room rate should be the final step, the other sections can be completed in any order. Remember that your efforts in studying the market will provide you with information to make better,Read MoreDaily Physical Activity Can Improve Exercise Tolerance And Functional Capacity5823 Words   |  24 Pagestest for evidence-based practice. Introduction Over six million American’s have a diagnosis of heart failure with a projected 670,000 new cases per year (Braunwald, 2012). People over the age of 70 carry the greatest burden of chronic disease, disability, and health care use (Guralnik, Leveielle, Hirsch, Ferrucci, Fried, 1997). Participation in physical activity is crucial for health, and walking accounts for much of the physical activity undertaken by sedentary individuals and those with chronicRead MoreEvaluating The Viability Of A Business Idea By Providing An Overview4953 Words   |  20 Pagesfirst five years, Stacy’s Helping Hand plans to operate in the Central Valley. The store, located in central Porterville, serves the different neighboring cities and counties. The target market is those requiring special assistance, because of disabilities or age preventing them from doing everyday living tasks. Why Stacy’s Helping Hand for Special Needs? The aisles at many stores, especially Wal-Mart, constantly cluttered and located too close together, making it difficult for consumers to shopRead MoreContent Analysis of Focus Group Data7519 Words   |  31 Pagesself through change. Focus group research is established as a method for gaining in-depth understanding of the perceptions of individuals within a group. In this format, individual participants share their perceptions of everyday phenomena such as aging, emergencies, sports events, or interventions (Hu, Rao, Hu, SC Sur, 2007; Jones, Richeson, Croteau, Farmer, 2009). Morgan (1996) describes the advantage of focus group research as the learning that is achieved through moderated group interactionRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagestechnology or health care. The increase in the technology jobs is due to the rapid increase in the use of information technology, such as databases, system design and analysis, and desktop publishing. The health care jobs are growing as a result of the aging of the U.S. population and workforce, a factor discussed later. Chapter 1 Changing Nature of Human Resource Management 5 FIGURE 1—1 The 10 Occupations with the Fastest Employment Growth, 1996—2006 Numbers in Thousands of Jobs Occupation Database

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business and Government Agencies Essay Example For Students

Business and Government Agencies Essay Business and Government AgenciesThe primary focus of my topic is three fold, first if a high rankingofficial from a firm were to become the Director of an agency and his formercompany is asking for approval of a drug, how should the Director act in regardto this rulemaking? The second question is not a difficult, if a former Directorwere to assume a position at a firm asking for approval of a drug, how shouldthe former directors position influence the decisions of the agency? Finally howcould government regulation limit the potential conflicts of interest from theRevolving Door?The first scenario answer is both ethics and law based. It would beunethical for the Director to have any influence what so ever in thiscircumstance. Realistically the Director would have probably at least aninfluence to the degree that those who work for him would at least try and guesshis desire for the outcome, at worst he would directly or indirectly tell them. Probably at this point no procedural rules have been breached. This is of courseonly if the director has not tried to influence the Administrative Law Judge inwhich case many legal issues could be raised, more on that in question three. Back to the ethics involved, it would be very important if the Director were totry and be ethical about the issue he/she should give the appearance of ethicalprocedure. One way this could be done is that a recommendation could be maderulemaking be in a formal format. In addition she/he should be very careful tolimit ex parte contacts between himself and his former business associates. Under no circumstance should the Director have conversation of any natureinvolving this case. Under the circumstance that the drug was or was notapproved, the case could go before Judicial review, there any appearance ofunethical behavior could not only be be evidence to support a plaintiffs claims,and even case a de novo review, but even worst it could be food for the mediaand a public scandal. The second question if the director were to leave and become a superiorfor a firm. I dont see this as a big threat, the new director would have hisnew alliances. It would seem like any influence that the former director wouldhave would have to be kept to a minimum in order to preserve the rulemakingunder the circumstance that the findings were on the firms behalf. As a companyrepresentative he should not personally make ex parte contacts with the agencyand obviously not approach the ALJ. The government control over the behavior described above is done throughvarious ways. The first way is to keep the final decision maker in regard to theagencies findings, the ALJ, separate from the mainstream agency. The is inaccordance with the procedural rules as outlined in the Administrative ProcedureAct (APA). The situation of ex parte contacts or meetings which are off therecord are a problem. They are primarily demonstrated in the format of informalrulemaking, so it would be a good policy to make high profile cases goodsituations to place on the formal rulemaking track. Another controllinginfluence is the three acts which impose public scrutiny of the agenciesbehavior during rulemaking. The freedom of information act, the government isresponsible to disclose specific records to the public on request. TheGovernment in Sunshine Act, here every portion of every meeting that is headedby a collegial body is open to public observation. The Regulatory FlexibilityAct of 1980, If a new regulation has a significant influence on small businessan analysis is done to determine if the financial burden out weighs the benefits. .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 , .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .postImageUrl , .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 , .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:hover , .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:visited , .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:active { border:0!important; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:active , .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0 .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u0486feae31978ae739ff39bc2a5a47c0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Wed searching behaviour of students EssayIf so then less costly alternatives are given. The two cases of the Director are extreme, in truth individuals of lesspower but sometimes more influence to the actual findings, for example an ALJ,may be a more common occurrence. The government has went to some lengths toprotect society from insider manipulations but I feel in truth it is common andfor the most part because of the power of Agencies not preventable. It isperhaps the constant attention that is paid to the Federal Register by Publicgroups and environmentalists which protect us the most. Law

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Virginia woolfs vision Essay Example For Students

Virginia woolfs vision Essay Almost sixty-five years have lapsed sinee Virginia Woolf spoke at Newnham and Girton colleges on the subjectof women and fiction. Her remarkable words are preserved for future generations of women in A Room of OnesOwn. This essay is the first manifesto of the modern feminist movement (Samuelson), and has been called anotable preamble to a kind of feminine Declaration of Independence (Muller 34). Woolf writes that her modestgoal for this ground-breaking essay is to encourage the young womenthey seem to get fearfully depressed(qtd. in Gordon xiv). This treatise on the history of womens writings, reasons for the scarcity of great womenartists, and suggestions for future literary creators and creations accomplishes far more than simple inspiration andmotivation for young writers. Woolf questions the effect . . . poverty has on fiction and the conditions . . . We will write a custom essay on Virginia woolfs vision specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now necessary for the creation of works of art (25), and she persuasively argues that economics are as important astalent and inspiration in the creative process. She emphatically states and, with brilliant fiction, supports herthesis that every woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction (4). Woolfs witty andbeautifully crafted essay has a practical message for aspiring women writers: as pioneers in the virtuallyunexplored frontier of womens literature, and to create timeless, powerful works of art, they must forsake theestablished mores of masculine creativity and forge their own traditions and styles. Woolf introduces this new literary tradition through the structure of her lecture. Rather than follow thetraditional format established through centuries of male lecturing, she transforms the formidable lecture formfemale equals (Marcus, Still 79). She preserves this intimacy in the written essay as well. Woolfs nephew andbiographer, Quentin Bell, writes that in A Room of Ones Own one hears Virginia speaking . . . . she gets veryclose to her conversational style (144). Rather than submit her audience to the usual dictation of the expert tothe ignorant (Marcus, Virginia 145), Woolf involves her audience in her quest for answers. She advises them thatshe plans to make use of all the liberties and licenses of a novelist, that her fiction is likely to contain moretruth than fact, and that they must seek out this truth and . . . decide whether any part of it is worth keeping(4-5). She does not disclose the truth as she sees it; rather, she requires the audience to participate in thedrama of asking questions and searching for Woolfs creative departure from established lecture style delightfullyforeshadows her intent to generate entirely new feminine traditions and searching for answers (Marcus, VirginiaWoolf encourages women to personally participate and identify with her ideas. She creates a fictitious narratorthrough which she chronicles her thoughts and discoveries as she researches the topic of women and fiction, I isonly a convenient term for somebody who has no real being . . . call me Mary Beton, Mary Seton, MaryCarmichael or by any name you pleaseit is not a matter of any importance (4-5). Ellen Rosenman writes that bydenying a real existence, the narrator associates herself with anonymity, and that if we turn this statementaround . . . she is Everywoman (160-61). By choosing these particular historical names to represent anyone and everyone who joins the quest for truth, including herself, Woolf accounts for much of the irony of her story andmuch of the forc e of her essay (Jones 228). Through her clever use of fiction, Woolf shrewdly removes herselffrom the position of authority, enhances audience identification with her narrator, and invites women to join hersearch for the true nature of women and the true nature of fiction (4). .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 , .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .postImageUrl , .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 , .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:hover , .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:visited , .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:active { border:0!important; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:active , .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4 .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u25c5e2f175ed5a9d832f51a0865104b4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Area 51 EssayWoolfs narrator, Mary, begins the quest for the pure fluid, the essential oil of truth (25) in the BritishMuseum, the very bastions of male literary tradition. Rosenman suggests that Woolf is laying the foundation of afemale tradition by allowing Mary to travel through a series of alien rooms, including the British Museum andthe common sitting room, to a room of her own (157). Marys stupefaction, wonder and bewilderment (Woolf26) at the plethora of contradictory, inaccurate, oven trivial volumes about women by men whose onlyqualification is that they are not wmen (27) awakens the reader to this travesty without directly revealing Woolfspersonal feelings of

Sunday, March 15, 2020

CSR Benefits Organization and External Shareholders

CSR Benefits Organization and External Shareholders Introduction Corporate social responsibility is a practice that provides more benefits to the organization in comparison to external stakeholders. There are scholars who oppose this argument and believe that CSR actually benefits the external stakeholders more. I will first present two arguments supporting the ideology that CSR benefits the external stakeholders. I will then show why these arguments are hollow and weak.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on CSR Benefits: Organization and External Shareholders specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I will also outline four arguments that prove that the practice of CSR only benefits the organization in the long-run. First of all I will theoretically show that CSR has become a public relation issue. CSR causes managers to feel that they are ethical and accountable yet it may not be true. In addition, when it comes to CSR it is the corporate that has all the power to determine which stakeholder to consider and if they choose an external stakeholder, it is only because they will maximise their profits. The other argument presents a very profound question. Which entity should be concerned about social responsibility? Should it be the government or the entity? Lastly, why should we task the corporate with a broad implementation of CSR? I will give the reasons why it should not be so drawing from the writings of Milton Friedman. I will also highlight the feasible expectations that the society should have on the corporates as they conduct business to avoid the public feeling short changed. There are feasible restrictions placed on the corporate as they conduct business which Milton Friedman clearly highlighted. CSR’s positive impact on External Stakeholders Milton Friedman proposed in one of his writings that the focus of the company managers should be to make profits for their bosses who are the shareholders. However, there are those who argue that he was w rong since as time has passed companies have embraced corporate responsibility. The managers have other goals apart from profit-making such as increasing social welfare (Bejou, 2011). CSR causes the company to be compassionate towards its external shareholders. Compassion encompasses certain values such as integrity and actions in support of human rights, animal rights, environmental sustainability and freedom.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also causes one to get involved in actions against global ills such as poverty and diseases. There are particular companies that have earned the reputation of being compassionate companies and researchers have highlighted the efforts that the companies have taken around the world. These include companies such as Pepsi, Ford, Aeropostale Inc. and Target. Ford Company is involved in providing support to food banks throughout the world through their Food pantry Project. Their employees also volunteer their man hours and in 2009, it was noted that they had volunteered 100,000 hours which is equivalent to $2 million. Pepsi is a company involved in assisting families that have been caught up in various disasters such as the earthquake in Haiti, the wildfires in Australia and the hurricanes in Central America and Mexico. Aeropostale Inc. has also been a compassionate company in providing gifts to children in hospitals, donating clothes to the homeless and assisting the victims of the Haiti earthquake. The Target Company on the other hand demonstrates compassion in giving 5% of its income to local communities in form of cash, in-kind donations and volunteer hours. Secondly, there have been many researchers who have criticized the Friedman article titled ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase profits’. They feel that he was against the broad view of CSR. It is argued that Miltonâ₠¬â„¢s view supported quite a narrow view of CSR (Schwartz and Saiia, 2012). The firm should be constrained by a broad view of CSR which includes ethical considerations that were not considered by Friedman. These broader values include utilitarianism where the firm considers the net good of all the stakeholders even though it will not give the maximum profit to the firm. There is also Kantianism where one is supposed to put himself or herself in another person’s shoes when making decisions and taking certain actions.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on CSR Benefits: Organization and External Shareholders specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is argued that the broad view should be adopted since organizations are powerful entities which can make great positive impact in the society (Post, 2003). A research case study was carried out to analyse the broad and narrow application of CSR. The Ford Pinto and Merck and Rive r Blindness incidents were the areas of focus. The Ford Motor Company realized there was a design flow in the manufacture of its Ford Pinto and had to recall the car from the market. The researcher argues that Friedman would have advised the company not to recall the car since it was quite a costly exercise and the car had conformed to the safety regulations at that time. However, the broader CSR view caused the company to recall the vehicle. The researcher also highlights the Merck and Co. management which decided to invest in a new drug that would cure river blindness yet the economical profits from the venture were quite low and uncertain. The Case against CSR benefitting External Stakeholders In analysing the arguments mentioned above, it is important to first point out how hollow the arguments are. CSR efforts should not be confused with ethical responsibility of managers. The world has faced global recession where many people have lost their jobs and homes due to the greed of senior managers yet all these companies were heavily involved in the compassionate activities outlined. Companies adopt CSR activities in order to portray themselves as compassionate and endear themselves to the public. Secondly, it is important to remember that the Ford Company only recalled the vehicles from the market after intense pressure from the public. They only did so after seven years. 27 people died during the period. In the case of Merck and Co, it is possible that the company knew the indirect financial benefits that would accrue by engaging in such a philanthropic act and this should not in any way prove that firms do not think of profits in all their actions. I will outline several arguments that show CSR only benefits the organization. First of all, people are more concerned with the business of ethics rather than the ethics of business. In many businesses there are ethical officers and departments. There are many books in print that highlight business ethics and bus iness ethics is a heavily researched area in different education institutions.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the ethical structures fail, the public blames greedy individual behaviour, the over-regulating government or the combination of business and politics. People rarely analyse the problem in a holistic way in order to provide a viable solution (Neimark, 1995). Ethics in business and especially CSR has just become a public relations issue. It would have been better for efforts to be geared in training individuals to have ethics instead of CSR. The objective of corporate social responsibility is hardly achieved since the allure of being viewed publicly as social responsible may cause managers to think they are practising social responsibility yet their actions speak otherwise. In a research study conducted in an Australian Company, PackCo, the researchers investigated whether the CSR policies helped managers to behave in an ethical and accountable manner. It is hard for managers to act ethically since in the aggressive pursuit of profit actions are taken on the expense of others. T he researchers interviewed managers in the different levels of management, environmental and accounting departments. Information was collected on the respondent’s opinions, values and impressions concerning the company’s social responsibility. Social responsibility was practiced in relation to the effect of the company’s activities on the environment. Managers had targets on minimising waste such as diesel and electricity. At the same time, the company was involved in recycling used packages, reconditioning them and using them again in selling products to the clients. The management thought that they have a social and ethical identity since they participated in these practices. A survey on the employees however showed that they were displeased with the working conditions such as recognition, fair treatment from managers and the state of the site amenities. The chairman wanted to restrict the results and not give them to senior management. Some of the managers di d not like the employees’ comments. The study showed that senior managers in getting involved in social responsibility may feel morally and ethically righteous causing them to refuse to address the real issues in the company (Baker and Roberts, 2011). They do not want to be questioned as they feel they are doing enough. It emerged that social responsibility was benefiting the organization’s managers and owners only and not the external stakeholders or the employees. As managers practiced environmental policies, they were interested in cutting costs at the detriment of the working conditions of employees as they pursued profit. In the organization itself senior management and owners of the company benefit the most from CSR as employees may not get any benefit at all. My second argument shows that the corporate is a powerful entity that determines which stakeholders it should consider. While defining corporate responsibility, there has been the use of terms such as oblig ations. However, the question is, who determines the obligations of a business to its external stakeholders and to what extent can the external stakeholders impose sanctions on a business when they engage in â€Å"illegitimate activities†? In analysing the social responsibility practices of firms, the firm focuses on pleasing the stakeholders who would have an influence over the financial or competitive position of the firm. There are therefore stakeholders who are marginalized since they do not influence the profitability of the firm positively (Bannerjee, 2008). CSR is viewed as a competitive strategy. One should not think that the interests of the external shareholders are the primal basis for the firm’s actions. In companies that have slick annual reports on social responsibility, there are high employee lay-offs yet the CEO salaries keep increasing. It is really all about cutting costs and making profits. The CSR actions will be taken only if they affect the botto m line positively. It is expected that the company will think beyond profits, will be ethical and transparent and get involved in actions to spur social welfare however this is a difficult task considering the inherent characteristic of a corporation to aggressively pursue profits. Big corporations that have caused environmental havoc especially in the Developing world have not gone out of business. As much as they have had to alter their policies and practices, these actions were voluntary and the public cannot really enforce such actions. Just because a company practices social responsibility does not mean that they are ethically responsible or accountable. Enron, a company that was rocked by scandals was voted as the best company to work in and the most innovative company. Another example is the unequal relationship between mining multinationals and indigenous people. If asked, the people would want the companies to leave however all the mining companies do is hire anthropologist s to investigate how they can expand their activities. There is a question one should ponder, if the corporate institutions are not really able to increase the social welfare through their business efforts, which entity then should be tasked with this responsibility? It should be the government of the country. It should provide an environment where there is balance. The disadvantaged or less powerful in society should be protected by laws that are entrenched in the constitution. The government however has not been able to address its responsibilities well. They have become caught up in creating conditions that are conducive for economic growth for the corporates (Roberts, 2003). The truth of the matter is that the economic structure in a capitalist society encourages the aggressive pursuit of profit at the expense of others. It was wrongly assumed that self-interest behaviour combined with market competition would greatly protect the interests of interests of the public. It is out o f this gap that there has been quite a high level of interest in investigating the powers of corporate institutions and forcing them to care for the society all in the name of corporate social responsibility. The public wants corporations to now take on the role of government and ensure that there is increase of social welfare. If an organization is involved in actions that impact the environment, it is okay to expect them to be involved in waste management and recycling efforts. However, there are areas which are beyond the scope of the organization. It is admirable if the company chooses to engage in such activities however having such high expectations will eventually lead to disorientation when it emerges that it was all a sham. The media has helped the public in pushing corporate investors to address ethical concerns and corporates only bow in fear of bad publicity but it is not because they want to do it. The non-governmental institutions have joined the media in making demand s on corporates and with the tools of video cameras and the internet companies are caught between a rock and a hard place. There are even certain companies which have become proactive to release stakeholder reports with the aim of avoiding the bad publicity. Milton Friedman did not support the call for corporate social responsibility and he outlined several reasons supporting his arguments. At the end of the day, a corporate is set up by the owners of the business to maximise profit. To engage in social responsibility and not regard the costs involved or the profit margin is indeed a violation of trust since the manager acts as the agent of the shareholders. There are costs that a business incurs every time it engages in corporate social responsibility. These costs can be considered as taxes on the shareholders especially where the company gets involved in charitable events. It is very hard for a business manager at times to anticipate the negative and positive effects of the compan y actions. Secondly as he imposes the costs of social welfare he will definitely lose the support of the shareholders. There is also the risk that a manager may engage in corporate social responsibility initiatives on his own without consultation with the owners or other stakeholders (Coelho and Spry, 2003). Certain individuals decide which CSR efforts to endorse. No wonder then CSR has simply become PR since these managers also have their own selfish interests. I therefore agree with Milton that the proponents of CSR are proposing socialist actions yet the businesses are operating in a capitalist market system. There are arguments that even if social impacts of business are unknown, this cannot be an excuse for the company not to engage in CSR (Mulligan, 1986). The businesses engage in new product and market campaigns despite the fact that there is a lot of uncertainty. However, there are estimation parameters that can be applied in predicting business events that may not be used i n estimating social events. The second argument is that CSR cannot be termed as socialist even though Friedman argues that the business manager ceases to be an entrepreneur and gets a political role where he is obligated to the society. The firm deals with scarce resources yet there are numerous needs in the society. Politicians are charged with the task of allocating scarce resources in society. CSR therefore turns the business man into a politician. It is argued that in a capitalist society, the political sphere is laced with individuals who are only concerned about their self-interest therefore CSR is not socialist. Considering this argument, then businesses should not attempt socialist actions at all in the capitalist market structure where there are no rigid controls. It is argued that Milton Friedman’s essay paper showed that he only supported legal restrictions on the enterprise and not moral or ethical restrictions. The fact of the matter is that the law keeps being a mended every few years as technology advances and other changes occur in the market place. By using the law, he wanted to give the business men a definite yard stick to work with rather than giving people an ambiguous yard stick that entails changing moral or ethical implications. He therefore did not intend for businesses to disregard the interests of others. It is worthwhile to also note that as much as he recognised the self-interest of business men he did not expect them to act in a selfish manner. Self-interest and selfishness should not be confused to mean the same thing (Cosans, 2009). Every human being is a rational being, looking out for their self-interest while purchasing items in the market place however it does not mean that every human being is a selfish individual. Researchers who have also read other works by Friedman have highlighted that his arguments were incorrectly analysed by different researchers. He recognized that we live in an interdependent society so busi ness should obey the rule of the law. They should also not act in deception or fraud. It is argued that he set a low ethical bar or that his view of CSR was narrow however his intention was not to act in such a manner. There is no need to set such high bars of ethical obligations yet the companies will face great dilemmas in trying to implement the acceptable forms of behaviour. It is also important to note that Friedman said that generally the desire of shareholders is to maximise profit. He acknowledges that there are situations where due to other considerations the aim of the management is not to maximise profit. In such instances, if the manager continues with his role as an agent he will do exactly what the shareholder desires. In light of the development of CSR and the recent corporate scandals, it is evident that Milton understood the politics of business and the propensity of business to gravitate towards profit-making at the expense of others. Friedman was not against CSR s ince he argued that the business in pleasing the owners should take care not to commit fraud or deception. He therefore placed limits on the firm in their pursuit of maximization of profits. That is truly the best CSR approach and not just engaging in charity events yet there are frauds happening in the organization. Those companies that are viewed as having attained high levels of social responsibility still disappoint society since sooner or later it comes out that they were a fraud. Conclusion The essay proves that indeed corporate social responsibility does not really benefit the society but the organization. It was expected that it would benefit external stakeholders however the nature of the market system and organizational entity makes it not possible. The company has been set up by individuals who are interested in making profits. The shareholders and managers act like rational beings just like everyone else. The imposition of CSR has made managers engage in public theatrics where they portray themselves as ethical yet their actions speak otherwise. It is better to place reasonable limits on the business rather than put unrealistic expectations causing the public to be disillusioned or disappointed. The task of increasing social welfare should be a role of the government since corporates are set up to make profit for the owner of the company. References Baker, M and Roberts, J. 2011. ‘All in the Mind? Ethical Identity and the Allure of Corporate Responsibility’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 101, no. 1, pp 5-15. Bannerjee, S. B. 2008. ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly’, Critical Sociology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp 51-79. Bejou, D. 2011. ‘Compassion as the New Philosophy of Business’, Journal of  Relationship Marketing, vol. 10, pp 1-6. Coelho, M. and Spry, J. 2003. ‘The Social Responsibility of Corporate Management: A Classic Critique’, American Journal of Business, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 15-24. Cosans, C. 2009. ‘Does Milton Friedman Support a Vigorous Business Ethics?’  Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 87, no. 1, pp 391-399. Mulligan, T. 1986. ‘A Critique of Milton Friedman’s Essay â€Å"The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp 265-269. Neimark, M.K. 1995. ‘The selling of ethics: The ethics of business meets the business of ethics’, Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal, vol. 8, no. 3, pp 81-96. Post, F. 2003. ‘A Response to The Social Responsibility of Corporate Management: A Classical Critique’, American Journal of Business, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25-35. Roberts, J. 2003. ‘The Manufacture of Corporate Social Responsibility: Constructing Corporate Sensibility’, Organization, vol. 10, no. 2, pp 249-265. Schwartz, M. S and Saiia, D. 2012. ‘Should Firms Go â€Å"Beyond Profits†? Milton Friedman versus Broad CSR’. Business and Society Review, vol. 117, no.1, pp 1-31.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Constant head permeability Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Constant head permeability - Lab Report Example Permeability as defined above is the capacity of sample of soil to allow the passage of water through it. It is also referred to as hydraulic conductivity. The coefficient of permeability is the velocity of flow that is generated by the hydraulic gradient of unity as stipulated by Darcy’s law which is given by the formula: 6. The tamping device is then used to compact the soil layer. About 10 rams per layer are recommended in order to provide a uniform coverage of the surface of the soil. The process should be repeated until the soil layer is within the range of 2 cm. 10. The bottom of the outlet valve is opened and raised to a given height in order to achieve a reasonable steady flow of water. Enough time should be allowed for the pattern of flow of the water to stabilize. 11. The time taken to fill a volume of 750-1000 ml using the graduated cylinder and the temperatures of the water recorded. This process is repeated three times and the average time, volume and average temperature computed. From the foregoing, it is clear that the value of the coefficient of permeability has been determined using the constant head test and found to be 0.2333 cm/s. as indicated earlier that the constant head test is appropriate for permeability’s of soils where k>10 – 4 cm/s, this has been proven to be consistent with the results obtained. Constant Head Permeability Test in Sand, University of Texas at Arlington Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Test Procedure. Retrieved from: Accessed on 15th April

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Patient Internet Guide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Patient Internet Guide - Essay Example This research is being carried out to evaluate and present some useful advices which would help to learn more about a medical condition through online search: Preferably, the site must be sponsored by a medical institution, organization or association. There is a high probability that medical professionals are behind the content of such sites. An example of which is Avoid sites that look shabbily presented. Good sites invest money, effort and time to establish impact and credibility to the readers. As much as possible, the site must be a registered domain and not just a simple blog that can disappear anytime. Check the site’s domain name and standing in Better Business Bureau. The site must have a disclaimer stating that the information presented is not in any way a substitute for medical advice. Never give your personal information unless the site can be trusted. More importantly, the site must ensure that your personal information would not be shared. Search for forums where people give feedback about certain sites. User experience is a reliable way to get good comments or criticism about a certain site. Avoid forums that have members arguing all of the time. Remember, you need information not arguments. The site must present valid source of references for their journals or articles. Sites with peer-reviewed journals are highly preferable.